Long Jump Training
In the long jump speed and explosive power must be developed in a well-planned training program. This plan must stretch over a long period.
An important factor in long jump training is to develop strength. The stronger the athlete is the faster the athlete can run and the further he or she can jump. Speed and strength in the long jump is defined by coaches as power.
The approach run of the jumper is actually a sprint over 30 to 40 meters. Maximum speed means to use the approach run well because 90% of the result of the long jump depends on the speed of the run-up to the board.
Limp movements that enables the athlete to perform internal transfer of horizontal force to the ground is important to allow the least energy expenditure when the foot-grounding takes place. Muscle forces during sprinting must be applied by the jumper to move the body horizontally during foot-ground contact.
The take-off is a very important factor in the long jump. During the take-off the jumper can generate vertical momentum without losing horizontal speed. Improving take-off speed must receive a lot of attention in the training of the long jump athlete. The actions of the free thigh and the counterbalancing arm is of great importance to develop vertical force during the take–off.
In the flight the athlete must adopt certain “in-the-air” techniques.The landing requires flexibility of the hamstrings and of the lower back muscles.Training for the long jump makes use of deep knee flexing exercises to enhance performance. Flexibility must be an important part of the conditioning program of a long jumper. The coach must include stretching exercises in the training program of the athlete to improve the different actions that must be performed in the air.
The two important factors in long jump are speed and flexibility by improving the specific muscles that can allow the athlete to provide greater horizontal force during sprinting and greater power in the jumping action and to improve speed which is basic for success in this event. For speed development the long jump athlete can apply the same program coaches use in the sprinting events.
In sprinting, hurdling and the long jump speed development is an important factor that must be emphasised by the coach in training programmes. The focus must be on improving the strength and flexibility of specific muscles as well as the development of endurance. The coach must also work on an athlete’s technique in conditioning him or her to reach optimum performance in his or her event.